In 2001 a case was submitted to Dawson’s Document Laboratory, L. According to the witness, all pages were executed at the same time.Technically the page 3 signature was not necessary for the Will.Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and the beginning of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in different regions.In 1939, Martin Kamen and Samuel Ruben of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley began experiments to determine if any of the elements common in organic matter had isotopes with half-lives long enough to be of value in biomedical research.The Will submitted to probate left 90% to the daughter, 10% to a son and nothing to an adopted son. Based upon Southworth Paper records, pages 1, 2 & 4 were manufactured in 1997; the watermark on page 3 dated year 2000. The forensic document examiner testified the decedents signature on page 3 was a simulation (forgery), the inks used for page 3 margin initials and decedents signature were different from pages 1, 2 & 4; however, all of this was opinion testimony.An examination of the Will was conducted at the County Probate Court and included a microscopic examination, an examination with VSC-4 instrumentation to note any ink differences and a light box to identify and photograph watermarks. The real strike for justice in this case was an undisputed fact from the records of Southworth, the watermark date proving that a sheet of paper was not in existence when the Will was originally executed, thereby page 3 had been inserted at a later date for the purpose of gain. Dawson has over 25 years of experience in the Forensic Document field.The resulting data, in the form of a calibration curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the sample's calendar age.Other corrections must be made to account for the proportion of throughout the biosphere (reservoir effects).
Histories of archaeology often refer to its impact as the "radiocarbon revolution".One of the calls that Southworth received was from Mr. Dawson, a Forensic Document Examiner with Dawson Document Laboratory, L. For example, there are times when one party in a probate dispute will allege a “page” was inserted in a Will thereby changing the distribution of the estate to benefit an individual “the family knows the decedent despised.” Other times several family members may submit a different Will to probate, each Will bearing a different date.For the average examiner paper analysis alone does not resolve the question.Southworth has received numerous calls asking if we can determine when a particular sheet of our paper was made. Dawson wrote the following article explaining first hand how important a date-coded watermark can be.On approximately half of the calls we receive, we identify that the paper was made after the document states it was written. One of the questions a forensic document examiner is asked to solve many times is the age or common origin of two or more sheets of paper.In addition to being a Forensic Document Examiner, he is also a Forensic Photographer. The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists.An elderly lady had passed away leaving two natural children and an adopted son.Most of the family “recalled” the decedent leaving each child 1/3 of the Estate.For example, two samples taken from the tombs of two Egyptian kings, Zoser and Sneferu, independently dated to 2625 BC plus or minus 75 years, were dated by radiocarbon measurement to an average of 2800 BC plus or minus 250 years. Carbon dioxide produced in this way diffuses in the atmosphere, is dissolved in the ocean, and is taken up by plants via photosynthesis.Animals eat the plants, and ultimately the radiocarbon is distributed throughout the biosphere.