The Philippines originally was not included, because Philippine history has not followed the general historical pattern of Southeast Asia, but, because of its geographic position and the close affinities of its cultures with the cultures of Southeast Asia, it is now usually regarded as the eastern fringe of Southeast Asia.A common geographic and climatic pattern prevails over all of Southeast Asia and has resulted in a particular pattern of settlement and cultural development.Mountain people generally have a different culture than that of the valley dwellers.Southeast Asia has been the crossroads of many peoples who have been contending against each other for centuries.In the 13th century the Tai-Shan (Tai) lost their kingdom of Nanchao (Nanzhao) in Yunnan, China, and entered the Mae Nam Chao Phraya Valley to found kingdoms that gradually evolved into the kingdoms of Siam ( Thailand) and Laos.In Southeast Asia, winds of change often came as storms.The first to come were the Austronesians (Austronesian languages) (Malayo-Polynesians), sometimes described as Proto-Malays and Deutero-Malays.
There were three main Austroasiatic groups, the Mon, the Khmer, and the Viet-Muong.
Within a short time, Southeast Asians were producing their own distinctive local versions of Indian styles, sometimes rivaling Indian artists with their skill, finesse, and invention on a colossal scale.
With the introduction of Hinduism and Buddhism, temple building, sculpture, and painting flourished from the 1st through the 13th century.
The success of their commercial venture and the safety of their persons depended entirely on the goodwill of the inhabitants.
The Indians brought new ideas and new art traditions.